FootLove Yoga’s Online Offerings!

I’ve added Online Classes to the menu with links to video shorts of me demonstrating how to use yogasana and other movement exercises to:

  • Improve strength to weight ratio – see if you are strong enough to hold/move your own weight
  • Train active mobility – add eccentric, isometric, and concentric action to yogasana, which is actually how you get more flexible, if that is your goal
  • Stay within your boundaries – learn your functional end ranges of motion, how to get there, and how to get stronger there

Also, you can use the Online Classes menu item to get to $5 Alignment Snacks. I often get asked how I learned what I teach. I read and train a lot, but those who most inform my current yoga teaching are highlighted in this post. I trained and certified in Restorative Exercise™ under Katy Bowman. You can learn straight from Katy with these killer 30 – 60 minute exercise videos, called Alignment Snacks, that you download, own, and view as often as you like for only $5 each! This is a fantastic deal.

Strong At Any Length

I write today about paradigmatic shifts in yogasana – an evolution in three acts – inspired by three teachers, whose work I’ve been deeply studying and with whom I’ve been privileged to train in vivo. Having multiple teachers is an exercise in blessings and curses and maddening dissonance. I am constantly reconciling and reconvening the experts in my head. I call a summit of this brain trust at least once a week, usually on Facebook, where I am then schooled by my smart(er) colleagues and their respective adepts. This is a mashup of what I’ve come to understand from these bodysmarties and how I’ve integrated their wizardry into my movement and life practices.

Act One by Ray Long: The Bandha Yoga Codex: Using Reciprocal Inhibition, Muscle Isolations, Co-Activations, and Facilitated Stretches in Yogasana

I have devoured Ray Long’s books and had the great fortune of a weekend workshop with him in Vancouver. It was through his teachings that anatomy ceased being abstract, non-contextual, and tedious rote memorization. His beautifully rendered books brought anatomy to life through methodical application of stretching physiology to yogasana.  His MO is to define the position of joints in a pose, identify prime mover muscles (agonists) and their corresponding stretchers (antagonists), and use stretch reflexes – muscle spindle, reciprocal inhibition, and golgi tendon organ to facilitate muscle extension. Where I find him most masterful is in cuing how to isometrically contract a muscle using directional cues like “press the hand onto the floor to contract serratus anterior” or “the cue for engaging these muscle together is to press the sole of the back foot into the floor and [isometrically] drag it toward the back side of the mat.” I wish all yoga teachers cuing isometric contractions would read Ray’s books and learn clear, sensible instructions instead of what can sometimes come across as vague, mystifying directives.  After learning of Jules Mitchell’s work, I started using Ray’s cues for muscle contraction not to facilitate reciprocal inhibition (ie contracting the quadriceps to further stretch the hamstrings), but instead I use his money cues to isometrically contract the stretching muscle, thereby increasing strength at the end range of motion, which, it turns out, is what actually increases flexibility.

I have read and recommend the following books by Ray Long.

The Key Muscles of Yoga: Scientific Keys, Volume I

The Key Poses of Yoga: Scientific Keys, Volume II

Yoga Mat Companion 1: Anatomy for Vinyasa Flow and Standing Poses

Yoga Mat Companion 2: Anatomy for Hip Openers and Forward Bends

Yoga Mat Companion 3: Anatomy for Backbends and Twists

Yoga Mat Companion 4: Anatomy for Arm Balances and Inversions

Act Two by Katy Bowman: Neutral Pelvis: How I Learned to Stop Using My Back to Stretch My Hip and Other Lessons in Honoring My Boundaries.

I’ve already written my primer on Katy Bowman on this blog. Most relevant here is Katy’s brilliant teachings on forces, loads, visible and invisible boundaries, and errant joint motions. Let me try to explain. In yoga, your body is subject to various forces, but of primary importance is how you position your joints in relation to each other. These forces are experienced as loads on your tissues. Regardless of the yoga lineage or alignment system you follow, your alignment markers are tools for helping you establish and maintain visible boundaries in your postures. Consider reverse warrior pose. If you maintain 90 degrees of flexion in your front knee as you laterally flex your spine, you will receive a different stretch than if you lose some of that flexion in your knee as you move into the pose. Try it. Circumventing your visible boundaries, as in the reverse warrior example, will not get you what you want in the pose – in this case, a stretch in the lateral trunk muscles.

When you disregard or have no visible boundaries (alignment markers) you are probably not stretching what you think you are. If alignment points (for example “90 degree flexion in knee in reverse warrior” or “shoulders stacked over wrists in cat/cow”) are your visible boundaries, what, then, are invisible boundaries? They are hidden forces, like errant joint positions, that undermine your alignment. Take the pelvis. In Katy’s system of Restorative Exercise, a neutral pelvis is one, where the  pelvic bones and pubic bone are in the same plane perpendicular to the floor. These visible boundaries (alignment markers), when honored, assure that you are stretching your hip flexors vs. overextending your back. Try this simple test. In a standing position, put your pelvis in neutral (Katy’s post linked to above gives a great visual). Remain upright (don’t fold forward into a Vira 3 variation), extend a leg behind you as far as you can. Notice that in order to get the leg that far back, your pelvis had to tilt forward and you contracted the muscles in your lower back. You used your back to stretch your hip flexors. Now try it again, this time keep your pelvis neutral while you extend your leg. This movement was much smaller and did not involve your back at all. This is your true range of motion in your hip flexing muscles. You can apply this same concept to prone postures like Dhanurasana (bow) or Salabhasana (locust). There is nothing wrong with involving your back, if you are aware that you are doing it and desire the accompanying lumbar extension and compression. If, however, you compress your spine each time that you only meant to extend your hip, then you are using your back to do the work of the muscles that should be stretching your hip.

Act Three by Jules Mitchell: Strong at Any Length: A Yogi Turned Biomechanist Turned Yoga Stretching on its Head

I have a nerdy girl crush on biomechanist Jules Mitchell. Me and about a gazillion other yoginis. The crush is strictly science based. I am a former research librarian, whose idea of a good time is to sit at home on Friday night with a stack of research papers. Jules wrote her masters thesis on the science of stretching and she turned the world of yoga on its head (not to be confused with the king is dead kind of headstand). She slogged through hundreds of research articles trying to confirm what she thought she knew about yoga stretching – that it makes muscles longer. What she discovered is that increases in range of motion are not biomechanical, but neuromechanical – yoga doesn’t lengthen muscles, it merely increases your nervous system’s tolerance to stretch further.  This is a ridiculously oversimplified explanation of Jules’ epic, paradigm shifting, game changing, head exploding thesis. But you are in luck, because she blogged about her research along the way and you can read about it. Start with her seminal post on tissue mechanics. If you want a concise distillation of Jules’ conclusions, read Jenni Rawlings’ post Stretching is in Your Brain – another smartypants to whom I am most grateful.

Two ways that Jules applies what she learned about the relationship between strength and flexibility inform my own practice. I was introduced to the idea of training active range of motion initially by Katy Bowman.

  1. Train active range of motion
  2. Strengthen at your end ranges of motion via muscle contraction

Training active range of motion in yoga simply means that you use muscle control to get into and out of a posture. If you have to leverage one body part with another or use your hands to lift your foot/leg into position, you are “placing” yourself into a position that you are not strong/flexible enough to get into organically. When you do this, you bypass your neurology and the tax for that “deeper” pose is that you no longer provide optimal muscular stability to your joints and you are in danger of stretching your connective tissues to permanent deformation or failure.  It is when you are in an active range of motion that you increase strength and flexibility.

For instance, in the seated spinal twist ardha matsyendrasana, instead of leveraging your elbow against your knee to twist your torso, you could simply use the core musculature of your trunk to twist. Try this,  keep your hands on your shoulders and twist using only your core muscles. If you need a hand on the floor behind you for support, make sure you are not leveraging the twist further with that hand.  Notice how far you are able to twist. This is your active range of motion. Now place your opposite elbow to the outside of your knee and leverage to see how much further you can twist. The difference is your passive range of motion. At best, in passive range of motion, you are not getting stronger or more flexible. At worst, you have rotated into a range of motion that is not safe for you because you bypassed the brake signal your nervous system gave you in the active twist. It is your brain that stops you from twisting further – not short or tight muscles. This concept applies whenever you are twisting, but expecially think about losing the leverage in postures like parivrtta utkatasana (revolved chair) and parivrtta trikonasana (revolved triangle).

Here are a few more postures to try that exemplify the brilliant work of Ray Long, Katy Bowman, & Jules Mitchell.

Vrksasana – I  used my hands to pick up my foot and place it high up onto my inner thigh.

P1030104 (1)

In this second version of tree pose, I used the strength and range of motion of my hip and leg to place my foot on my thigh without using my hand and while maintaining Tadasana (no cheating my foot up by contorting my body in some other manner). You see, my brain stopped me from going further because foot high on the thigh is not a position that I ever got into on my own before beginning to train active mobility. The first time I tried placing my foot without using my hand, I couldn’t get my heel higher than my knee joint! I am living evidence that training in active mobility improves both strength and flexibility.

vrksasana_active

And how about the Bikram or Hot Yoga variation? A striking difference between passive and active range of motion. Not only does passive range of motion  make your shorter, it sometimes changes the color of your clothes. Just kidding.

Vrksasana_bik_passivevrksasana_bik_active

Utthita Hasta Padangustasana takes on a whole new look, when you don’t use your hand to bypass your neurology.

UHP_passiveUHP_active_xn2UHP_active_np

In the classic pose, first picture, I am in passive range of motion – I used my hand to lift my foot, much higher than I could get it there on my own. My lumbar curvature is AWOL and if I had a dog tail, it would be between my legs.

Notice in the second picture, that even though I used active range of motion to lift my leg, I am not wearing a neutral pelvis. By retroverting my pelvis (tucking my tail), thus thrusting my pubic symphysis further forward than my pelvic bones (anterior superior iliac spines) and unwittingly flexing my standing knee,  I am now using my back to do the work of my leg – in this case flexing my hip.

The third picture shows the most optimal posture, in that I am training active range of motion and keeping a neutral pelvis (you can tell by the bubbleness of my bottom and my lordodic lumbar curve), but look how low high my leg is now!??!

Parsvattonasana

And finally, I hack Ray Long’s excellent cuing and mash it up with Jules Mitchell’s love of eccentric, concentric, and isometric muscle action for strengthening at end range in one of my favorite asanas – parsvottonasana. In this pose, the front leg’s hamstring is eccentrically contracting (generating force while lengthening). Cue lifting the front heel, while keeping the knee straight, to contract the calf muscle. You have just added a concentric contraction (generated force) to a stretching muscle.  Try slowly lifting and lowering the heel a few times. Next, with just the slightest bend of your knee, firmly press the heel of the front foot into the floor and isometrically  “drag” the front foot towards the back foot (don’t actually move the foot). Because the heel is fixed in place, this action of trying to press the heel into the floor and play drag it backwards is the same muscular action that would be taken if you were trying to flex your knee and results in a contraction of your stretching hamstring – the exact recipe for increasing strength at your end range of motion.

I would be honored and humbled to receive critical comments from any of these teachers or anyone familiar with their work. Or anyone, really.

Namaste, Michele

Sweat is 99% Water, 1% Natural Stuff and 0% Toxins

Yoga claims many health benefits, most of which are anecdotal, the collected stories and somatic truths of its millions of practitioners.   A few claims  are solidly supported by research – like improvements in pain, reduction in inflammation, enhanced body awareness, and those work horses of yoga – better strength and flexibility. Yoga’s promising effect on other diseases and conditions, like cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, are seeing a greater number of quality studies. But one thing for certain is that releasing toxins through sweating or twisting asanas is pure myth.

What is Sweat?

Sweat is 99% water with a dash of essential salt minerals, urea and other wastes from protein metabolism, and some trace elements like zinc. Sweat’s main job is thermoregulation – to cool the body. When your internal temperature rises, your sweat glands secrete a non-toxic mix of mostly water to your skin’s surface, where heat is removed by evaporation – aka sweat. When you sweat in yoga class, you are not releasing alcohol, angst, toxic chemicals, drugs, illness or supersized happybad meals – you are secreting mostly water for the physiological purpose of cooling your body. If you are hoping to rid yourself of the aforementioned toxic brew, rest assured that the actual parts of your body that do this work – your liver, kidneys, colon and mind – are actually doing this work. Unless…and this is a big unless, you have been occupationally exposed to high levels of heavy metals – arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, etc. A 2012 review that looked at 24 studies on toxicants and sweat, found levels of heavy metals in the sweat of subjects who had been occupationally or geochemically exposed. For the typical Western yoga practitioner, who has not had an occupational exposure, has not been exposed via geochemistry, and is not in kidney failure, the science has simply not shown sweat to be a major route for ridding the body of unwanted toxins.

Sweating is not a case of more is better. Excess sweating means elimination of water and its associated weight – aka water weight, which is not a true loss of fat or mass. In an ironic turn of events, heavy sweating is associated with a significant diminishment of urinary output, thus concentrating uric acid and other cellular wastes in your blood – the buildup of which is toxic to your body.

What About Wringing Toxins Out Your Organs?

I often hear yoga teachers refer to the detoxifying effects of spinal twists. While there may be a metaphorical truth to this claim, it’s more nuanced and complex than that. Whether you are flexing, extending, or twisting your core muscles, the act of generating force in a muscle causes the smallest of blood vessels (arterioles and capillaries) to vasodilate (get bigger), which pulls oxygen rich blood out of the arteries (lowering arterial blood pressure) and into these tiny vessels, feeding the work of your cells.  Your body’s waste removal system (lymphatic system) works in parallel with your cardiovascular system, thus while blood is being drawn into the muscles, cellular waste (toxins) is removed. This happens wherever and however you move your muscles and is not the territory of twists alone. Although a twist is an effective way to bring blood to your intervertebral discs, which do not have their own blood supply but rely on diffusion from the blood supply at their margins, flexing or extending your trunk may accomplish the same thing, as movement is thought to enhance the process of diffusion.

Now you see how using your muscles in yoga facilitates cellular waste removal and keeps your  spinal discs nourished, but what about wringing stale blood and toxins out of your organs to allow fresh blood in? Well, I lean on the wit of Kim & Mel at Smarterbodies to eviscerate this myth. “So twist and do so knowing that you are helping create movement in your internal organs, but in NO WAY are they “wrung out.”  That is not possible and if that happens to you or inside of you please go to a hospital, because you are going to die. Also, do the organs fill with fresh blood after a trunk rotation? No, they are CONSTANTLY filled with “fresh” (I’m assuming this means oxygenated) blood, because we have these vessels called ARTERIES whose job is to deliver this type of blood constantly from birth to death.”

As always, I am happy to elaborate on this or any previous content. Post your questions/comments here or email me at michele@footloveyoga.com.

Namaste, Michele

Stop Distributing Your Weight Evenly Throughout Your Feet in Yoga!

I intended to post something on feet every day in January, but alas, embedded in all the knowledge I picked up at the gait workshop that I attended in Seattle (Walking the Lines: Anatomy Trains, Myofascial Efficiency & A Model of Gait), was something that feels like the flu.

I’m using my down time to read about the anatomy of feet and yoga, and was inspired to comment on a common yoga cue that I’d like to see go away.

“Spread your weight evenly from front to back”
“Distribute your weight across the four (or three) corners of your feet”
“Feel your weight in all parts of your foot”
“Your weight should be even across your big toe mound, baby toe mound, and heel”

You will hear some variation on this cue for Tadasana (mountain pose) in many yoga classes. Unfortunately, its not good instruction. If you follow this improper cue, then you will have an unnatural, strong forward lean of your body. The architecture of the foot is elegant and intricately complex on an a deep anatomy level, but quite simple on a gross level as pertains to weight bearing. Your heel bone (calcaneus) is the largest bone of your foot and is structurally located precisely below where the weight of your body is translated to the ground. Your lower leg bones and those of your feet make up your ankle joint, which is located above your strong, weight-accepting heel bone, not above the smaller bones (tarsals) and more slender bones (metatarsals) of your mid and forefoot, respectively. These smaller bones are meant to assist in transfer of weight during gait, propulsion of your body forward, and in supporting your arches but NOT to hold the mass of your weight. I go over this in more detail in my post on backing up your hips.

Even the cue to have “the majority” of your weight in your heels is not specific enough. The majority could be 60% and that is not enough weight in the heels. ALL of your weight should be borne by your heels. So if all of your weight is back in your heels, what is the rest of your foot doing? Wouldn’t it be lifted up off the ground? No.This is where your strong yoga foot comes into play. You can apply pressure to the ball of your foot by pressing it into the ground, without shifting your weight or hips forward.

Try it.

  1. Stand in Tadasana with your the front of your ankles the width of your ASIS bones (pelvic bones, “hip pointers)
  2. Line up the outer edges of your feet so that your outer ankle bones and the middle of your baby toes are in a straight line
  3. Sway your weight forward and back a few times, but then stop when your weight is fully back over your heels
  4. Press the balls of your feet into the floor
  5. Relax your toes
  6. Make sure to back your hips up until a side view in a mirror would show your hip joint directly over your knee joint directly over your ankle joint with all three joints stacked directly over your strong, meant-for-this-purpose calacanei.

Having a partner press their hands down firmly on the tops of yours shoulders should give you a sense of whether or not your weight is all the way in your heels. If it were spread evenly throughout your feet, you could buckle under the weight of your partner’s hands. If your weight is back, you can easily stand strongly under this downward pressure because you are using the vertical structure of your bones to resist downward force.

This is how you do Tadasana – not because it is part of any particular yoga lineage, but because it is optimal for the health of your feet. What’s the big deal if you are only doing Tadasana a few minutes per yoga class? Because what you do on the mat  often translates to what you do off of the mat – both the helpful and the harmful. This is how you do standing in line at the grocery. This is how you do standing around with a group of friends. This is how you do standing.

Namaste, Michele

Simulating the Toe Off Event in Walking to Stretch Your Plantar Fascia

You learned in my first post on Plantar Fasciitis that stretching the plantar aponeurosis aka fascia is associated with better outcomes than other conservative, conventional treatments including anti-inflammatory medications, corticosteroid injections, and both custom and over the counter orthotics. In addition to stretching the tissues statically, you can functionally stretch the plantar fascia by simulating the tensioning of the plantar fascia that occurs during the propulsion phase of gait (walking). Three variations of the static stretch are provided in order of intensity, followed by a link to a video of the dynamic, functional stretch.

Plantar Fascia Stretch – Static

Plantar fascia stretch

Plantar fascia stretch

Plantar fascia stretch from my behind

Plantar fascia stretch from my behind

Level 1

  1. Stand up on your knees with the dorsal (top) sides of your feet and toes touching the floor.
  2. Extend the toes of your right foot forward, so that the bottoms of your toes are touching the floor
  3. Hold for 1 minute and repeat on left foot
Kneeling plantar fascia stretch

Kneeling plantar fascia stretch

Level 2

  1. Be on your hands and knees with the dorsal (top) sides of your feet and toes touching the floor.
  2. Extend the toes of your right foot forward, so that the bottoms of your toes are touching the floor
  3. Pressing your hips back towards your heels will increase the stretch
  4. Hold for 1 minute and repeat on left foot
Semi hands & knees plantar fascia stretch

Semi hands & knees plantar fascia stretch

Level 3

  1. Begin in either Level 1 or Level 2 starting position
  2. Extend the toes of your right foot forward, so that the bottoms of your toes are touching the floor
  3. Sit back on your heels (vajrasana) with your spine upright and neutral
  4. Hold for 1 minute and repeat on the left side

007

Plantar Fascia Stretch – Dynamic

  1. Be on your hands and knees with the dorsal (top) sides of your feet and toes touching the floor
  2. Bring your right foot forward until the sole is on the ground and your butt is on your left heel
  3. Rock forward from heel to toe on your right foot
  4. See the video of this on FootLove Yoga Facebook Page

Note in the photo above that I did not get my pinky toe extended forward. I should have reached around to coax that lil puddin into extension.

In any of the variations, try to reach back to your foot and massage the fascial tissue in a crosswise direction, providing an additional myofascial release of these sticky tissues.

Namaste, Michele

You Are Not as Sensitive as Your Big Toe

There are few body parts more sensitive to surface pressure in the skin than your toes. The only areas with a higher density of receptors are your fingers and your face. Once again, I turn to Mel Robin’s book A Handbook for Yogasana Teachers. Mel references BKS Iyengar as a master of linking skin sensation to intelligence. Mel advises that when you are balancing in a posture like vrksasana (tree pose) to “trust your big toe, and keep the body’s primary intelligence in the toes, foot, and ankle of the balancing leg,” pg 916 – yes, there are over 1000 pages in this behemoth of yoga intelligence!

Let’s try it. Come into vrksasana – I posted a fuzzy, old picture of me below in case you don’t know tree pose. Your foot can be above or below your standing leg’s knee. Direct all of your attention to your toes, especially the big gal. Allow them to grip as much as needed. Toe gripping in balancing postures generates necessary countertorque for balancing and should not be discouraged.* Consider the big toe and the areas around it as being the brain of the posture. Be less concerned about what is happening in the other areas of your body, keep returning your attention to your toes, letting them guide the subtle swaying and nuanced corrections of your body. Play  around with letting your toes relax or lifting them to see how that changes your balance.

Since vrksasana, along with all standing balancing postures, is terrific for practicing that strong yoga foot I wrote about yesterday, try pressing the ball of your foot down, with or without gripping your toes, and lift your arch. Viva la feet!

Vrksasana

Vrksasana

*Toe gripping outside of single leg balancing, as in how you have to grip your toes to keep on a pair of flip flops or other shoes without a secure upper, is highly discouraged. Long term toe gripping in non-balancing yoga postures, while driving, or in trying to keep on flip flops, slides, clogs, etc. can contribute to muscle tension patterns that make you susceptible to hammertoes.

Namaste, Michele

Strong Yoga Foot

When I teach, I often cue the “strong yoga foot.” But its not just for yoga. I am standing at my DIY standing work station typing this while doing the strong yoga foot. You should do it too. Stand up right now.

  1. Stand with your feet pelvis width apart. Pelvis width means the front of your ankles fall directly below your anterior superior iliac spines aka ASIS aka your “hip pointers” aka the pokey bones to the right and left and superior to (above) your pubic bone that you feel on the front of your hips pelvis when lying on your belly on the cold hard floor.
  2. Straighten the outer edges of your feet.
  3. Shift your pelvis back aka back your hips up.
  4. Place your weight back into the centers of your heels.
  5. Press the balls of your feet into the mat without pressing the tips of your toes.
  6. Lift your arches. Really, lift your arches. If you can’t find the lift button, those muscles are not really firing, which is a problem.

My friend Mel Robin has a great exercise in his book, A Handbook for Yogasana Teachers, for using a strap to simulate actions of the muscles on the lower leg (peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and anterior tibialis) for achieving what he terms the “strong-foot position of Iyengar yoga.”  These same muscles play a critical role in keeping your arches strong and intact.

Strong Yoga Foot

Strong Yoga Foot

Instructions for Mel’s strap/belt simulation:

(a) With the left leg bent somewhat, encircle the ankle of your left foot with the belt and hold the ends of the belt in your right hand

(b) With the left leg fully bent, take the belt over the sole of your foot, moving it in a counter-clockwise direction.

(c) Hold the belt in the left hand with a slight downward pull and straighten the left leg. This pulling down simulates what would be the lifting of your arch if you were standing upright.

I tried this standing up and it is a great method for training a weak, poorly innervated arch to begin to begin to lift on command.

strong_foot_strap

You can practice the strong yoga foot anytime your are standing – during yoga, waiting in line, standing around with friends, or even bird watching.

Namaste, Michele